This is the Saint Louis Science Center’s NIGHT SKY UPDATE for the week of Friday, July 10, 2020.

Information updated weekly or as needed.

Times given as local St. Louis time (CDT).  For definitions of terminology used in the night sky update, click the highlighted text.

Star parties at the Saint Louis Science Center have been canceled due to recommendations from the CDC regarding COVID-19. All public telescope events are canceled until further notice. As conditions change, we will reevaluate and update this article once public observing events resume.

The Sun and Moon


The Moon as seen from the International Space Station, on July 31, 2011.
Credit: NASA

Sunrise is at 5:38 a.m. on Friday, July 10 and sunset is at 8:30 p.m. providing us with about 15 hours of daylight. Even after sunset, the light from the Sun will dimly illuminate our sky for roughly 2 hours. This period is called twilight, which ends around 10:21 p.m. this week. For those with a sundial, local noon occurs around 1:07 p.m. this week.

DaySunriseSunset
2020-07-10 5:46 a.m.8:27 p.m.
2020-07-11 5:46 a.m.8:27 p.m.
2020-07-12 5:47 a.m.8:26 p.m.
2020-07-13 5:48 a.m.8:26 p.m.
2020-07-14 5:49 a.m.8:25 p.m.
2020-07-15 5:49 a.m.8:25 p.m.
2020-07-16 5:50 a.m.8:24 p.m.
2020-07-17 5:51 a.m.8:24 p.m.
2020-07-18 5:52 a.m.8:23 p.m.

Moonrise for Friday, July 10 occurs on the previous day at 11:43 p.m. and moonset will occur at 11:05 a.m. On Friday, July 10 the Moon will exhibit a waning gibbous phase with about 70% of the lunar disk illuminated. Last quarter moon occurs on July 12 at 6:29 p.m.

International Space Station (ISS) Observing

Credit: NASA

Visible passes of ISS from St. Louis for the week of July 10 occur during morning and evening hours. The best of these occur on the morning and evening of July 16. Use the table below for information about these and other visible passes of ISS.

Catch ISS from St. Louis starting Friday, July 10

Date Starts  Max. altitude  Ends  
TimeAlt.Az.TimeAlt.Az.TimeAlt.Az.
10 July-0.7 01:03:3215NNE01:03:3215NNE 01:04:2310NNE
11 July-1 05:04:2010NNW 05:07:0422NNE 05:09:4710E
12 July-0.6 01:03:0815NNW 01:03:1715NNW 01:05:1510NNE
12 July-0.6 04:16:5610NNW 04:19:1217NNE 04:21:2810ENE
13 July-1 00:15:3919NNW 00:15:3919NNW 00:17:5310NNE
13 July-0.4 03:29:3510NNW 03:31:1713NNE 03:32:5810NE
13 July-2.8 05:05:2310NW 05:08:4152NE 05:11:5810ESE
13 July-3.2 21:47:3510SSW 21:50:4135SE 21:53:4710ENE
13 July-1.6 23:24:3610W 23:27:3126NNW 23:30:2610NNE
14 July-1.8 04:17:5010NW 04:20:5432NNE 04:23:5810E
14 July-2.4 21:00:3410S 21:03:0720SE 21:05:3910E
14 July-2.4 22:36:3110WSW 22:39:4240NNW 22:42:5410NE
15 July-1.1 03:30:2010NNW 03:33:0422NNE 03:35:4610E
15 July-3.6 05:06:4610WNW 05:10:0148SW 05:13:1510SSE
15 July-3.5 21:48:3610WSW 21:51:5769NW 21:55:1810NE
15 July-0.5 23:27:1410NW 23:29:1415NNW 23:31:1410NNE
16 July-0.7 02:42:5410NNW 02:45:0917NNE 02:47:2410ENE
16 July-3.8 04:18:5810NW 04:22:2189S 04:25:4110SE
16 July-3.8 21:00:5410SW 21:04:1465SE 21:07:3310ENE
16 July-0.9 22:38:4610WNW 22:41:1719NNW22:43:4810NNE
17 July-2.9 03:31:1810NW 03:34:3651NE 03:37:5210ESE
17 July-2.1 05:09:0010W 05:11:0415SW 05:13:0910SSW
17 July-1.4 21:50:2810W 21:53:2327NNW21:56:1810NNE
18 July-0.9 02:43:4210NW 02:44:1914NNW 02:44:1914NNW
18 July-2.3 21:02:2010WSW 21:05:3241NNW 21:08:4510NE

Magnitude (Mag): The Measure of brightness for a celestial object.  The lower the value is, the brighter the object will be.

Altitude (Alt):  The angle of a celestial object measured upwards from the observer’s horizon.

Azimuth (Az):  The direction of a celestial object, measured clockwise from an observer’s location with north being 0°, east being 90°, south being 180° and west being 270°.

For information about ISS flyovers and other visible satellites, visit www.heavens-above.com

Detailed information regarding all unmanned exploration of our universe, missions past, present, and planned, can be found at Jet Propulsion Laboratories:

http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/

The Visible Planets


Looking South, at 1:00 am, July 11, 2020
Credit: Stellarium, EG


Looking East and South, 4:40 am, July 11, 2020
Credit: Stellarium, EG

This week, we start with four naked eye planets are visible in the morning and late evening. By the end of the week Mercury will join Venus in the eastern sky before sunrise. Jupiter and Saturn rise in the evening but are better seen after midnight. Look for them rising in the southeast and after midnight they will be in the south. Mars will be best seen in the southeast a few hours before sunrise. Venus and eventually Mercury will be in the eastern sky just before sunrise.

For those tracking Jupiter and Saturn as they approach their great conjunction later this year, the two gas giants currently appear about 6.6° apart in the sky. Jupiter appears to be moving away from Saturn right now due to retrograde motion. This is all an illusion caused by Earth passing by slower moving Jupiter. Saturn has also started retrograde motion. If you keep watching these planets as 2020 progresses, you will see some interesting behaviors that inspired early astronomers to track the skies.

Mercury

Mercury starts another morning apparition late this week becoming visible in the east about 40 minutes before sunrise on July 18. Mercury will continue to elongate from the Sun until July 22 when it reaches maximum western elongation. After this date Mercury will head back towards the Sun as it approaches superior conjunction on August 17. The best chance to see Mercury will be between July 18 and July 31.

Venus

Venus has begun another morning apparition. After months of seeing Venus in the west after sunset Venus is now visible in the east before sunrise. Venus rises at 3:20 a.m. and will be easily seen by 4:00 a.m. Venus remains a morning object until March 26, 2021 when it reaches superior conjunction.  Venus reaches maximum western elongation on August 12, 2020.

Mars

The red planet rises around 12:18 a.m. and will be high enough to see in the southeast by 1:00 a.m. Opposition for Mars occurs on October 13, 2020. As we head towards this date Mars will appear brighter and larger through a telescope improving surface details. Surface features are already visible when viewing conditions are favorable.

Jupiter

The king of the planets is rising around 8:36 p.m. and should be visible in the southeast around 9:30 p.m. Each week you will find Jupiter rising roughly 30 minutes earlier than it did in the previous week. Opposition for Jupiter occurs on July 14. On this date Jupiter will be at its brightest for the 2020 apparition. After this date Jupiter will rise before the Sun sets.

Saturn

Saturn is rising around 8:58 p.m. and will be visible in the southeast around 10:00 p.m. Saturn reaches opposition on July 20. For those with a telescope keep track of the orientation of Saturn’s rings.  Since Saturn is tilted on its rotational axis, we cross the plane of Saturn’s ring every 13 to 15 years.  We are headed towards another ring plane crossing on March 23, 2025. Over the next five years you will notice Saturn’s rings will gradually incline towards an edge on appearance.

2020 Great Conjunction

This year the planets Jupiter and Saturn will reach conjunction.  A conjunction is when two or more celestial bodies share the same right ascension.  For Jupiter and Saturn this astronomical event occurs every 20 years. The conjunction occurs on December 21, 2020.  You will find the two planets close together in the southwest just after sunset on this date.

 

Comet C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE)

After two disappointing comets, we finally have a bright comet to observe in St. Louis. On March 27, 2020, a comet now named C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) was discovered in survey data from NASA’s NEOWISE space telescope. NEOWSIE was the extended mission of NASA’s WISE infrared space telescope. As NEOWISE the telescope focused on surveying the sky for Near Earth Objects (NEOs) which are asteroids and comets that come near or could cross Earth’s orbit.

C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) reached perihelion on July 3, passing about 43 million km from the Sun.  After perihelion, this comet started to climb out of the twilight glare of the Sun becoming visible just before sunrise. Currently you can find the comet in the constellation Auriga. By July 13 it will move into the constellation Lynx and by July 18 it will be in Ursa Major. After July 13, C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) will begin a brief disappearing act until July 16. As the comet moves from Auriga through Lynx and on to Ursa Major, it will be in a portion of sky too low to the horizon to be easily found. Bad as it sounds this will be a good thing as once C/2020 F3 is in Ursa Major we will see the comet just after sunset instead of just before sunrise.

C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) has reached its peak brightness and will continue to fade as it moves away from the Sun. Dark locations are reporting it is visible naked eye but in light polluted conditions you will need binoculars to spot this comet. Its current brightness is around 2nd magnitude which will continue to fade as we head through July. By August 2020, the comet is predicted to fall to 6th magnitude making it difficult to spot in light pollution.

As of this week I have observed the comet in light polluted and hazy conditions through a variety of binoculars ranging from 6×30 to 10×50. Its coma appeared point like to me and the comet displays a bright dust tail that was easily seen in all the binoculars. This is the best comet we have seen in St. Louis for several years and it is worth getting up early to see it at its best. The best opportunity to see C/2020 F3 (NEOWISE) will be July 10 to 13 starting around 4:30 a.m. when It will be found 9° above the northeastern horizon.

More information and detailed maps can be found here

Sky and Telescope

https://cometchasing.skyhound.com/

Visit the James S. McDonnell Planetarium for more information on what’s up!

Night Sky Update: July 10-July 18, 2020